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Knowledge Center

The BFLP promotes the sharing of knowledge and dissemination of information through our online financial platform, news articles, government/industry reports, and academic research.

BFLP Online Financial Knowledge Platform

offers online personal finance content and tools for BFLP delivery partners, participants, and coaches.

 

Government and Industry Reports

Brookings Institution. 2018. A Review of Large-Scale Youth Financial Literacy Education Policies and Programs. Washington, D.C.

Brookings Institution. 2018. Recommendations for Improving Youth Financial Literacy Education. Washington, D.C.

Champlain College. National Report Card on State Efforts to Improve Financial Literacy in High Schools. Burlington, VT.
2013, 2015, 2017

Champlain College. 2016. National Report Card on Adult Financial Literacy: Is Your State Making the Grade? Burlington, VT.

Consumer Financial Protection Bureau. Financial Literacy Annual Report. Washington, D.C.
2013, 2014, 2015, 2016, 2017, 20182019

Consumer Financial Protection Bureau. 2013. Feedback from the Financial Education Field. Washington, D.C.

Consumer Financial Protection Bureau. 2014. Rigorous Evaluation of Financial Capability Strategies: Why, When and How. Washington, D.C.

Consumer Financial Protection Bureau. 2015. Financial Well-Being: The Goal of Financial Education. Washington, D.C.

Council for Economic Education. Survey of the States: The State of K-12 Economic and Financial Education in the U.S. New York, NY.
2014, 2016, 20182020

Federal Reserve Bank of Boston. 2015. Promoting Pathways to Financial Stability- A Resource Handbook on Building Financial Capabilities of Community College Students. Boston, MA.

Financial Literacy and Education Commission. 2010. Why and How: Background Report Developing the 2011 National Strategy. Washington, D.C.

Financial Literacy and Education Commission. 2011. Promoting Financial Success in the United States: National Strategy for Financial Literacy. Washington, D.C.

Financial Literacy and Education Commission. 2015. Opportunities to Improve the Financial Capability and Financial Well-Being of Postsecondary Students. Washington, D.C.

Financial Literacy and Education Commission. 2015. Strategy for Assuring Financial Empowerment (SAFE) Report. Washington, D.C.

FINRA Investor Education Foundation. 2013. Financial Literacy Around the World. Washington, D.C.

FINRA Investor Education Foundation. 2015. State Financial Education Mandates It’s All in the Implementation. Washington, D.C.

FINRA Investor Education Foundation. 2018. Gender, Generation and Financial Knowledge: A Six-Year Perspective. Washington, D.C.

FINRA Investor Education Foundation. 2018. The 2018 National Financial Capability Study. Washington, D.C.

FINRA Investor Education Foundation. 2019 Does State Mandated Financial Education Affect High-Cost Borrowing? Washington, D.C.

FINRA/Global Financial Literacy Excellence Center. 2019. New Evidence on the Financial Knowledge and Characteristics of Investors. Washington, D.C.

George Washington University, Global Financial Literacy Excellence Center. 2015. Raising Awareness of the Importance of Personal Finance in School. Washington, D.C.

George Washington University, Global Financial Literacy Excellence Center. 2017. Financial Education, Financial Competence, and Consumer Welfare. Washington, D.C.

George Washington University, Global Financial Literacy Excellence Center. 2018. The 2018 TIAA Institute-GFLEC Personal Finance Index: The State of Financial Literacy Among U.S. Adults. Washington, D.C.

George Washington University, Global Financial Literacy Excellence Center. 2019. Financial Literacy and Economic Outcomes Evidence and Policy Implications. Washington, D.C.

George Washington University, Global Financial Literacy Excellence Center. 2019. Raising Awareness of the Importance of Personal Finance in School: New Insights. Washington, D.C.

George Washington University, Global Financial Literacy Excellence Center. 2019. Financial Literacy in the United States and Its Link to Financial Wellness. Washington, D.C.

OECD. 2012. Empowering Women Through Financial Awareness and Education.

OECD. 2013. Measuring Financial Literacy: Results of the OECD International Network on Financial Education (INFE) Pilot Study.

Government Accountability Office. 2011. Report 11-614 Financial Literacy: A Federal Certification Process for Providers Would Pose Challenges. Washington, D.C.

Government Accountability Office. 2014. Report 14-556T Financial Literacy: Overview of Federal Activities, Programs, and Challenges. Washington, D.C.

MA Financial Literacy Task Force. 2015. Report on Financial Literacy in MA: A Roadmap to Economic Empowerment. Boston, MA.

National Foundation for Credit Counseling. Consumer Financial Literacy Survey. Washington, D.C.
2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014, 2015, 2016, 2017, 2018, 20192020

OECD. 2015. National Strategies for Financial Education- OECD/INFE Policy Handbook.

OECD. 2017. G20/OECD INFE Report on Adult Financial Literacy in G20 Countries.

OECD. 2018. OECD/INFE Toolkit for Measuring Financial Literacy and Financial Inclusion

OECD, 2020. OECD/INFE, 2020 International Survey of Adult Financial Literacy.

Standards & Poor’s Rating Services. 2015. Financial Literacy Around the World. New York, NY.

Urban Institute. 2014. Do Financial Knowledge, Behavior, and Well Being Differ by Gender? Washington, D.C.

Consumer Financial Protection Bureau. 2017. Financial Well-being in America. Washington, D.C.

U.S. Financial Literacy and Education Commission. 2019. Best Practices for Financial Literacy and Education at Institutions of Higher Education. Washington, D.C.

Boston College, Center for Retirement Research. 2012. The National Retirement Risk Index: An Update. Chestnut Hill, MA.

Boston College, Center for Retirement Research. 2014. How Much Should People Save? 14-11. Chestnut Hill, MA.

Boston College, Center for Retirement Research. 2014. NRRI Update Shows Half Still Falling Short. Chestnut Hill, MA.

Boston College, Center for Retirement Research. 2015. Dog Bites Man: Americans Are Shortsighted About Their Finances. 15-3. Chestnut Hill, MA.

Boston College, Center for Retirement Research. 2017. Do Households Have a Good Sense of Their Retirement Preparedness? 17-4. Chestnut Hill, MA.

Boston College, Center for Retirement Research. 2017. Who Contributes to Individual Retirement Accounts? 17-8. Chestnut Hill, MA.

Boston College, Center for Retirement Research. 2019. Women, Marriage, and the National Retirement Risk Index. 19-10. Chestnut Hill, MA.

Boston College, Center for Retirement Research. 2019. Why Are So Many Households Unable to Cover a $400 Unexpected Expense? 19-11. Chestnut Hill, MA.

FINRA Investor Education Foundation. 2013. Softening the Blow: Income Shocks, Mortgage Payments and Emergency Savings. Washington, D.C.

George Washington University, Global Financial Literacy Excellence Center. 2019. Debt Close to Retirement and its Implications for Retirement Well-Being. Washington, D.C.

Government Accountability Office. 2015. Report 15-419 Retirement Security: Most Households Approaching Retirement Have Low Savings. Washington, D.C.

National Institute on Retirement Security. 2013. Race and Retirement Insecurity in the United States. Washington, D.C.

National Institute on Retirement Security. 2013. The Retirement Savings Crisis. Washington, D.C.

National Institute on Retirement Security. 2015. The Continuing Retirement Savings Crisis. Washington, D.C.

National Institute on Retirement Security. 2017. Retirement Security 2017: Americans’ Views of the Retirement Crisis. Washington, D.C.

National Institute on Retirement Security. 2018. Retirement in America: Out of Reach for Most Americans? Washington, D.C.

National Institute on Retirement Security. 2019. Retirement Insecurity 2019: Americans’ Views of the Retirement Crisis. Washington, D.C.

National Institute on Retirement Security. 2020.  Still Shortchanged: An Update on Women’s Retirement Preparedness.  Washington, D.C.

 National Institute on Retirement Security. 2020. Examining the Nest Egg: The Sources of Retirement Income for Older Americans. Washington, D.C.

Pew Charitable Trusts. 2015. The Role of Emergency Savings in Family Financial Security: How Do Families Cope with Financial Shocks? Philadelphia, PA.

Pew Charitable Trusts. 2016. The Role of Emergency Savings in Family Financial Security: Barriers to Saving and Policy Opportunities. Philadelphia, PA.

Pew Charitable Trusts. 2016. The Role of Emergency Savings in Family Financial Security: What Resources Do Families Have for Financial Emergencies? Philadelphia, PA.

Pew Charitable Trusts. 2017. Financial Shocks Put Retirement Security at Risk. Philadelphia, PA.

TDAmeritrade. 2019. The Retirement Pulse Survey. Omaha, Nebraska

The Brookings Institution. 2019. How Will Retirement Change by 2050? Washington, D.C. 

 

Boston College, Center for Retirement Research. 2018. Will Millennials Be Ready for Retirement? 18-2. Chestnut Hill, MA.

FINRA Investor Education Foundation. 2018. Uncertain Futures 7 Myths about Millennials and Investing. Washington, D.C.

George Washington University, Global Financial Literacy Excellence Center and PwC. 2015. Millennials & Financial Literacy: The Struggle with Personal Finance. Washington, D.C.

George Washington University, Global Financial Literacy Excellence Center. 2018. Millennial Financial Literacy and Fin-Tech Use: Who Knows What in the Digital Era. Washington, D.C.

George Washington University, Global Financial Literacy Excellence Center. 2019. Millennials’ Engagement with Online Financial Education Resources and Tools: New Survey Insights and Recommendations. Washington, D.C.

National Institute on Retirement Security. 2018. Millennials and Retirement: Already Falling Short. Washington, D.C.

TIAA Institute. 2018. Millennial Financial Literacy and Fin-Tech Use. New York, NY.

University of Kansas, Center on Assets, Education, and Inclusion. 2015. Building Millennials' Financial Health Via Financial Capability. Lawrence, KS

CFED. 2015. Excluded from the Financial Mainstream: How the Economic Recovery is Bypassing Millions of Americans. Washington, D.C.

Charles Schwab Corporation. Modern Wealth Survey2017, 2018, 2019

Cities for Financial Empowerment Fund. 2017. An Evaluation of Financial Empowerment Centers Building People’s Financial Stability as a Public Service. New York.

Consumer Financial Protection Bureau. 2015. Measuring Financial Well-Being. Washington, D.C.

Consumer Financial Protection Bureau. 2017. Financial Well-Being in America. Washington, D.C.

Consumer Financial Protection Bureau. 2018. Pathways to Financial Well-Being: The Role of Financial Capability. Washington, D.C.

Consumer Financial Protection Bureau. 2019. Financial Well-Being of Veterans. Washington, D.C.

Federal Reserve Bank of San Francisco and CFED. 2015. What It’s Worth. San Francisco, CA.

Federal Reserve Board. Report on Economic Well-Being in U.S. Households. Washington D.C.
2013, 2014, 2015, 2016, 2017, 20182020

FINRA Investor Education Foundation. 2013. The Financial Fragility of American Families. Washington, D.C.

FINRA Investor Education Foundation. 2009. Financial Capability in the United States: Initial Report of Research Findings from the 2009 National Survey. Washington, D.C.

FINRA Investor Education Foundation. 2013. Financial Capability in the United States: Report of Findings from the 2012 National Financial Capability Study. Washington, D.C.

FINRA Investor Education Foundation. 2014. The Financial Capability of Young Adults—A Generational View. Washington, D.C.

FINRA Investor Education Foundation. 2015. A Snapshot of Investor Households in America. Washington, D.C.

FINRA Investor Education Foundation. 2016. Financial Capability in the United States 2016. Washington, D.C.

FINRA Investor Education Foundation. 2016. Investors in the United States 2016. Washington, D.C.

FINRA Investor Education Foundation. 2019. The State of U.S. Financial Capability: The 2018 National Financial Capability. Washington, D.C.

Government Accountability Office. 2015. Report 15-639SP Financial Literacy: The Role of Workplace. Washington, D.C.

Karrikins Group. 2019. The State of Play in Financial Capability, Literacy, and Well-Being: How to Really Build Financial Capability. Denver, CO.

President’s Advisory Council on Financial Capability for Young Americans. 2015. Final Report. Washington, D.C.

Prosperity Now. 2019. Vulnerability in the Face of Economic Uncertainty. Washington, D.C.

Prudential Financial. 2017. The Power of the Wellness Effect. Newark, NJ.

FINRA Investor Education Foundation. 2013. Financial Fraud and Fraud Susceptibility in the United States. Washington, D.C.

FINRA Investor Education Foundation. 2014. American Renters and Financial Fragility. Washington, D.C.

FINRA Investor Education Foundation. 2014. Millennials in the Military—An Examination of Financial Capability. Washington, D.C.

FINRA Investor Education Foundation. 2014. The Financial Welfare of Military Households. Washington, D.C.

FINRA Investor Education Foundation. 2010. Financial Capability Among Military Personnel: Initial Report of Research Findings from the 2009 Military Survey. Washington, D.C.

FINRA Investor Education Foundation. 2013. Financial Capability in the United States: 2012 Report of Military Findings. Washington, D.C.

FINRA 2017. Investor Education Foundation and First Nations Development Institute. Race and Financial Capability in America: Understanding the Native American Experience. Washington, D.C.

FINRA Investor Education Foundation. 2017. The Financial Welfare of Veteran Households. Washington, D.C.

NASD Investor Education Foundation. 2006. Senior Investor Literacy and Fraud Susceptibility Survey: Key Findings. Washington, D.C.

National Foundation for Credit Counseling. 2014. A Survey about Financial Literacy Among the U.S. Military. Washington, D.C.

Urban Institute. 2017. Past Due Medical Debt among Nonelderly Adults 2012-2015. Washington, D.C.

Academic Research

(Alphabetical by first letter of first author’s last name)

Agarwal, Sumit, Gene Amromin, Itzhak Ben-David, Souphala Chomsisengphet, and Douglas D. Evanoff. 2011. "Financial Counseling, Financial Literacy, and Household Decision-Making." In Financial Literacy: Implications for Retirement Security and the Financial Marketplace, edited by Olivia S. Mitchell and Annamaria Lusardi, 181-205. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Agarwal, Sumit, John C. Driscoll, Xavier Gabaix, and David Laibson. 2009. "The Age of Reason: Financial Decisions over the Life Cycle and Implications for Regulation." Brookings Papers on Economic Activity Fall: 51-101.

Agarwal, Sumit, Paige M. Skiba, and Jeremy Tobacman. 2009. "Payday Loans and Credit Cards: New Liquidity and Credit Scoring Puzzles?" National Bureau of Economic Research Working Paper 14659.

Agnew, Julie R., Hazel Bateman, and Susan Thorp. 2013. "Financial Literacy and Retirement Planning in Australia." Numeracy 6 (2).

Agnew, Julie R. and Lisa Szykman. 2011. "Annuities, Financial Literacy, and Information Overload." In Financial Literacy: Implications for Retirement Security and the Financial Marketplace, edited by Olivia S. Mitchell and Annamaria Lusardi, 158-80. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Agnew, Julie R., Lisa Szykman, Stephen P. Utkus, and Jean A. Young. 2007. "Literacy, Trust, and 40l(k) Savings Behavior." Boston College Center for Retirement Research Working Paper 2007-10.

Aguiar, Mark and Erik Hurst. 2005. "Consumption versus Expenditure." Journal of Political Economy 113 (5): 919-48.

Aguiar, Mark and Erik Hurst. 2007. "Measuring Trends in Leisure: The Allocation of Time over Five Decades." Quarterly Journal of Economics 122 (3): 969-1006.

Alessie, Rob, Maarten van Rooij, and Annamaria Lusardi. 2011. "Financial Literacy and Retirement Preparation in the Netherlands." Journal of Pension Economics and Finance 10 (4): 527-45.

Allgood, Sam and William Walstad. 2013. "Financial Literacy and Credit Card Behaviors: A Cross-Sectional Analysis by Age." Numeracy 6 (2).

Almenberg, Johan and Anna Dreher. 2011. "Gender, Stock Market Participation and Financial Literacy." Stockholm School of Economics Economic Research Institute Working Paper 737.

Almenberg, Johan and Jenny Save-Soderergh. 2011. "Financial Literacy and Retirement Planning in Sweden." Journal of Pension Economics and Finance 10 (4): 585-98.

Ameriks, John, Andrew Caplin, and John Leahy. 2003. "Wealth Accumulation and the Propensity to Plan." Quarterly Journal of Economics 118 (3): 1007-47.

Aren, Selim and Sibel Dinç Aydemir. 2014. “A Literature Review on Financial Literacy.” Journal of Financial Researches & Studies 6 (11): 33-49.

Arenas de Mesa, Alberto, David Bravo, Jere R. Behrman, Olivia S. Mitchell, and Petra E. Todd. 2008. "The Chilean Pension Reform Turns 25: Lessons from the Social Protection Survey." In Lessons from Pension Reform in the Americas, edited by Stephen J. Kay and Tapen Sinha, 23-58. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Arrondel, Luc, Majdi Debbich, and Frederique Savignac. 2012. "Stockholding and Financial Literacy in the French Population." International Journal of Social Sciences and Humanity Studies 4 (2).

Arrondel, Luc, Majdi Debbich, and Frederique Savignac. 2013. "Financial Literacy and Financial Planning in France." Numeracy 6 (2).

Ashraf, Nava, Diego Aycinena, Claudia Martinez A., and Dean Yang. 2015. "Savings in Transnational Households: A Field Experiment among Migrants from El Salvador." Review of Economics and Statistics 97 (2): 332-351.

Atkinson, Adele and Flore-Anne Messy. 2011. "Assessing Financial Literacy in 12 Countries: An OECD/ INFE International Pilot Exercise." Journal of Pension Economics and Finance 10 (4): 657-65.

Atkinson, Adele and Flore-Anne Messy. 2012. "Measuring Financial Literacy: Results of the OECD/ International Network on Financial Education (INFE) Pilot Study." Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development Working Paper on Finance, Insurance and Private Pensions 15, OECD Publishing, Paris, https://doi.org/10.1787/5k9csfs90fr4-en.

Attanasio, Orazio and Guglielmo Weber. 2010. "Consumption and Saving: Models of Intertemporal Allocation and Their Implications for Public Policy." Journal of Economic Literature 48 (3): 693-751.

Banks, James and Zoe Oldfield. 2007. "Understanding Pensions: Cognitive Function, Numerical Ability and Retirement Saving." Fiscal Studies 28 (2): 143-70.

Bayer, Patrick J., B. Douglas Bernheim, and John Karl Scholz. 2009. “The Effects Of Financial Education In The Workplace: Evidence From A Survey Of Employers.” Economic Inquiry 47 (4): 605-624.

Becker, Gary S. 1994. Human Capital: A Theoretical and Empirical Analysis with Special Reference to Education, Third edition. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

Beckmann, Elisabeth. 2013. "Financial Literacy and Household Savings in Romania." Numeracy 6 (2), Article 9. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5038/1936-4660.6.2.9 Available at: http://scholarcommons.usf.edu/numeracy/vol6/iss2/art9.

Behrman, Jere R., Olivia S. Mitchell, Cindy K. Soo, and David Bravo. 2012. "How Financial Literacy Affects Household Wealth Accumulation." American Economic Review 102 (3): 300-304.

Benitez-Silva, Hugo A., Berna Demiralp, and Zhen Liu. 2009. "Social Security Literacy and Retirement Well-Being." University of Michigan Retirement Research Center Working Paper 2009-210.

Ben-Porath, Yoram. 1967. "The Production of Human Capital and the Life Cycle of Earnings." Journal of Political Economy 75 (4 Part 1): 352-65.

Bernanke, Ben S. 2011. "Statement of the Chairman of the Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System at a hearing conducted by the Subcommittee on Oversight of Government Management, the Federal Workforce, and the District of Columbia of the Committee on Homeland Security and Governmental Affairs." Washington, D.C.: Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System.

Bernheim, B. Douglas. 1995. "Do Households Appreciate Their Financial Vulnerabilities? An Analysis of Actions, Perceptions, and Public Policy." In Tax Policy and Economic Growth, Washington, D.C.: American Council for Capital Formation, 1-30.

Bernheim, B. Douglas. 1998. "Financial Literacy, Education, and Retirement Saving." In Living with Defined Contribution Pensions: Remaking Responsibility for Retirement, edited by Olivia S. Mitchell and Sylvester J. Schieber, 38-68. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press.

Bernheim, B. Douglas and Daniel M. Garrett. 2003. "The Effects of Financial Education in the Workplace: Evidence from a Survey of Households." Journal of Public Economics 87 (7-8): 1487-1519.

Bernheim, B. Douglas, Daniel M. Garrett, and Dean M. Maki. 2001. "Education and Saving: The Long­Term Effects of High School Financial Curriculum Mandates." Journal of Public Economics 80 (3): 435-65.

Bernheim, B. Douglas and John Karl Scholz. 1993. "Private Saving and Public Policy." In Tax Policy and the Economy, Volume 7, edited by James Poterba, 73-110. Cambridge and London: MIT Press.

Bertrand, Marianne and Adair Morse. 2011. "Information Disclosure, Cognitive Biases, and Payday Borrowing." Journal of Finance 66 (6): 1865-93.

Beshears, John, James J. Choi, David Laibson, and Brigitte C. Madrian. 2012. "Default Stickiness among Long-Income Individuals." RAND Working Paper WR-926-SSA.

Blanton, Kimberly. 2012. "The Rise of Financial Fraud." Center for Retirement Research Brief 12-5.

Bodie, Zvi, A Note on Economic Principles and Financial Literacy (April 2006). Networks Financial Institute Policy Brief No. 2006-PB-07. Available at SSRN: https://ssrn.com/abstract=923561 or http://dx.doi.org/10.2139/ssrn.923561

Brown, Jeffrey R., Arie Kapteyn, Erzo F. P. Luttmer, and Olivia S. Mitchell. 2017. "Cognitive Constraints on Valuing Annuities." Journal of the European Economic Association 15 (2): 429–462.

Brown, Jeffrey R., Arie Kapteyn, and Olivia S. Mitchell. 2016. "Framing and Claiming: How Information-Framing Affects Expected Social Security Claiming Behavior." Journal of Risk and Insurance 83 (1): 139-162.

Brown, Martin and Roman Graf. 2013. "Financial Literacy and Retirement Planning in Switzerland." Numeracy 6 (2).

Browning, Martin and Annamaria Lusardi. 1996. "Household Saving: Micro Theories and Micro Facts." Journal of Economic Literature 34 (4): 1797-1855.

Bruhn, Miriam, Luciana de Souza Leão, Arianna Legovini, Rogelio Marchetti, and Bilal Zia. 2016. "The Impact of High School Financial Education: Evidence from a Large-Scale Evaluation in Brazil." American Economic Journal: Applied Economics 8 (4): 256-95.

Bucher-Koenen, Tabea and Annamaria Lusardi. 2011. "Financial Literacy and Retirement Planning in Germany." Journal of Pension Economics and Finance 10 (4): 565-84.

Bucher-Koenen, Tabea, Annamaria Lusardi, Rob Alessie, and Maarten van Rooij. 2017. “How Financially Literate are Women? An Overview and New Insights.”Journal of Consumer Affairs 2017 51 (2) 255-283.

Bucher-Koenen, Tabea and Michael Ziegelmeyer. 2011. "Who Lost the Most? Financial Literacy, Cognitive Abilities, and the Financial Crisis." Mannheim Research Institute for the Economics of Aging Working Paper 234.

Bumcrot, Christopher, Judy Lin, and Annamaria Lusardi. 2013. "The Geography of Financial Literacy." Numeracy 6 (2).

Bursztyn, Leonardo, Florian Ederer, Bruno Ferman, and Noam Yuchtman. 2012. "Understanding Peer Effects in Financial Decisions: Evidence from a Field Experiment." National Bureau of Economic Research Working Papers 18241.

Cagetti, Marco. 2003. 'Wealth Accumulation Over the Life Cycle and Precautionary Savings." Journal of Business and Economic Statistics 21 (3): 339-53.

Cai, Jing, Alain de Janvry, and Elisabeth Sadoulet. 2013. "Social Networks and the Decision to Insure." Munich Personal RePEc Archive OOWE 46861.

Calvet, Laurent E., John Y. Campbell, and Paolo Sodini. 2007. "Down or Out: Assessing the Welfare Costs of Household Investment Mistakes." Journal of Political Economy 115 (5): 707-47.

Calvet, Laurent E., John Y. Campbell, and Paolo Sodini. 2009. "Measuring the Financial Sophistication of Households." American Economic Review 99 (2): 393-98.

Campbell, John Y. 2006. "Household Finance." Journal of Finance 61 (4): 1553-1604.

Campbell, John Y., Howell E. Jackson, Brigitte C. Madrian, and Peter Tufano. 2011. "Consumer Financial Protection." Journal of Economic Perspectives 25 (1): 91-114.

Carpena, Fenelia, Shawn Cole, Jeremy Shapiro, and Bilal Zia. 2011. "Unpacking the Causal Chain of Financial Literacy." World Bank Policy Research Working Paper 5798.

Chai, Jingjing, Wolfram Horneff, Raimond Maurer, and Olivia S. Mitchell. 2011. "Optimal Portfolio Choice over the Life Cycle with Flexible Work, Endogenous Retirement, and Lifetime Payouts." Review of Finance 15 (4): 875-907.

Chan, Sewin and Ann Huff Stevens. 2008. "What You Don't Know Can't Help You: Pension Knowledge and Retirement Decision-Making." Review of Economics and Statistics 90 (2): 253-66.

Chen, Haiyang and Ronald P. Volpe. 1998. "An Analysis of Personal Financial Literacy among College Students." Financial Services Review 7 (2): 107-28.

Chen, Haiyang and Ronald P. Volpe. 2002. "Gender Differences in Personal Financial Literacy among College Students." Financial Services Review ll (3): 289-307.

Chiteji, Ngina S. and Frank P. Stafford. 1999. "Portfolio Choices of Parents and Their Children as Young Adults: Asset Accumulation by African-American Families." American Economic Review 89 (2): 377-80.

Choi, James J., David Laibson, and Brigitte C. Madrian. 2004. "Plan Design and 40l(k) Savings Outcomes." National Tax Journal 57 (2 Part 1): 275-98.

Choi, James J., David Laibson, Brigitte C. Madrian, and Andrew Metrick. 2006. "Saving for Retirement on the Path of Least Resistance." In Behavioral Public Finance, edited by Edward J. Mccaffery and Joel Slemrod, 304-51. New York: Russell Sage Foundation.

Christelis, Dimitris, Tullio Jappelli, and Mario Padula. 2010. "Cognitive Abilities and Portfolio Choice." European Economic Review 54 (1): 18-38.

Christiansen, Charlotte, Juanna Schroter Joensen, and Jesper Rangvid. 2008. "Are Economists More Likely to Hold Stocks?" Review of Finance 12 (3): 465-96.

Clark, Robert L. and Madeleine D'Ambrosia. 2008. "Adjusting Retirement Goals and Saving Behavior: The Role of Financial Education." In Overcoming the Saving Slump: How to Increase the Effectiveness of Financial Education and Saving Programs, edited by Annamaria Lusardi, 237-56. Chicago and London: University of Chicago Press.

Clark, Robert L, Annamaria Lusardi, and Olivia S. Mitchell.2017. “Employee Financial Literacy and Retirement Plan Behavior: A Case Study.” Economic Inquiry 55 (1), 248-259.

Clark, Robert L., Melinda Sandler Morrill, and Steven G. Allen. 2012a. "Effectiveness of Employer­Provided Financial Information: Hiring to Retiring." American Economic Review 102 (3): 314-18.

Clark, Robert L., Melinda Sandler Morrill, and Steven G. Allen. 2012b. "The Role of Financial Literacy in Determining Retirement Plans." Economic Inquiry 50 (4): 851-66.

Clark, Robert L., Rikiya Matsukura, and Naohiro Ogawa. 2013. "Low Fertility, Human Capital, and Economic Growth: The Importance of Financial Education and Job Retraining." Demographic Research 29: 865-84.

Cocco, Joao F., Francisco J. Gomes, and Pascal J. Maenhout. 2005. "Consumption and Portfolio Choice over the Life Cycle." Review of Financial Studies 18 (2): 491-533.

Cole, Shawn, Xavier Gine, Jeremy Tobacman, Petia Topalova, Robert Townsend, and James Vickery. 2013. "Barriers to Household Risk Management: Evidence from India." American Economic Journal: Applied Economics 5 (1): 104-35.

Cole, Shawn, Anna Paulson, and Gauri Kartini Shastry. 2014. "Smart Money? The Effect of Education on Financial Outcomes." Review of Financial Studies 27 (7): 2022–2051.

Cole, Shawn, Anna Paulson, and Gauri Kartini Shastry. 2016. "High School Curriculum and Financial Outcomes: The Impact of Mandated Personal Finance and Mathematics Courses.” The Journal of Human Resources 51 (3): 656-698.

Cole, Shawn, Thomas Sampson, and Bilal Zia. 2011. "Prices or Knowledge? What Drives Demand for Financial Services in Emerging Markets?" Journal of Finance 66 (6): 1933-67.

Collins, J. Michael. 2011. "Improving Financial Literacy: The Role of Nonprofit Providers." In Financial Literacy: Implications for Retirement Security and the Financial Marketplace, edited by Olivia S. Mitchell and Annamaria Lusardi, 268-87. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Collins, J. Michael and Collin M. O'Rourke. 2010. "Financial Education and Counseling-Still Holding Promise." Journal of Consumer Affairs 44 (3): 483-98.

Crossan, Diana. 2011. "How to Improve Financial Literacy: Some Successful Strategies." In Financial Literacy: Implications for Retirement Security and the Financial Marketplace, edited by Olivia S. Mitchell and Annamaria Lusardi, 241-54. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Crossan, Diana, David Feslier, and Roger Hurnard. 2011. "Financial Literacy and Retirement Planning in New Zealand." Journal of Pension Economics and Finance 10 (4): 619-35.

de Bassa Scheresberg, Carlo. 2013. "Financial Literacy and Financial Behavior among Young Adults: Evidence and Implications." Numeracy 6 (2).

Deevy, Martha, Shoshana Lucich, and Michaela Beals. 2012. "Scams, Schemes and Swindles: A Review of Consumer Financial Fraud Research." Stanford University Center on Longevity Financial Fraud Research Center.

DeHart William B., Jonathan E. Friedel, Jean M. Lown, and Amy L. Odum. 2016. “The Effects of Financial Education on Impulsive Decision Making.” PLOS ONE 11 (7): 1-16.

Delavande, Adeline, Susann Rohwedder, and Robert Willis. 2008. "Preparation for Retirement, Financial Literacy and Cognitive Resources." University of Michigan Retirement Research Center Working Paper 2008-190.

de Mel, Suresh, David McKenzie, and Christopher Woodruff. 2011. "Getting Credit to High Return Microentrepreneurs: The Results of an Information Intervention." World Bank Economic Review 25 (3): 456-85.

De Nardi, Mariachristina, Eric French, John B. Jones. 2010. "Why Do the Elderly Save? The Role of Medical Expenses." Journal of Political Economy 118 (1): 39-75.

Disney, Richard and John Gathergood. 2012. "Financial Literacy and Consumer Credit Portfolios." University of Nottingham Centre for Finance and Credit Markets Working Paper 12/06.

Drexler, Alejandro, Greg Fischer, and Antoinette Schoar. 2010. "Keeping it Simple: Financial Literacy and Rules of Thumb." Centre for Economic Policy Research Discussion Paper 7994.

Duflo, Esther and Emmanuel Saez. 2003. "The Role of Information and Social Interactions in Retirement Plan Decisions: Evidence from a Randomized Experiment." Quarterly Journal of Economics 118 (3): 815-42.

Duflo, Esther and Emmanuel Saez. 2004. "Implications of Pension Plan Features, Information, and Social Interactions for Retirement Saving Decisions." In Pension Design and Structure: New Lessons from Behavioral Finance, edited by Olivia S. Mitchell and Stephen P. Utkus, 137-53. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Elliehausen, Gregory, E. Christopher Lundquist, and Michael E. Staten. 2007. "The Impact of Credit Counseling on Subsequent Borrower Behavior." Journal of Consumer Affairs 41 (1): 1-28.

Employee Benefit Research Institute. 2007. "Retirement Confidence Survey." http://www.ebri.org!surveys/rcs/.

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